Formation of Autonomous Republics

Autonomous Republics. Chart. 1922

 

Original Source: Territorial’noe i administrativnoe delenie SSSR (Moscow, 1924).

Having considered the general background of the revolutionary philosophy of self-determination and of its application in administration, the numerous autonomous territories which have been created in Soviet Russia may be enumerated. The old divisions of Russia gave way to new ones in which it would appear that the Bolsheviks had intended to dig up history and revive a number of tribes and peoples of centuries past so that a present chart of Russia has a kind of nightmare resemblance to the historical-ethnographical map of primitive Russia. In some of these areas there is a Russian majority, but, omitting the element of political expediency, the reason for the administrative unit may have been not so much principles of nationality as customs and habits. A list is given here of the territorial divisions which have arisen. About half of the new formations are inhabited by Muslims. Of the autonomous republics, all are included as a part of the RSFSR with the following exceptions: Moldavia is included in the Ukraine, the Tadzhik republic in Uzbekistan, the Nakhichevan republic in Azerbaijan, and Adzharia and Abkhazia form a part of Georgia. The list is given below.

Autonomous Republic When Formed Area in Sq. kilometers Population (add 000)
1 Bashkir March 23, 1919 145,380 2,691
2 Tatar May 27, 1920 67,241 2,622
3 Kirghiz August 26, 1920 2,009,303 6,491
4 Daghestan Jan 20, 1921 55,272 788
5 Gorsk Jan 20, 1921 …..
6 Abkhazia March 4, 1921 8,172 199
7 Turkestan April 11, 1921 …..
8 Adzharsk June 16, 1921 1,329 129
9 Crimea Oct 18, 1921 25,775 700
10 Yakutsk April 27, 1922 4,023,407 279
11 Karelia July 25, 1923 146,313 267
12 Buryat-Mongol Sept 12, 1923 419,000 522
13 Nakhichevan 1923 6,524 104
14 German Volga Feb. 20, 1924 27,423 571
15 Moldavia Oct. 12, 1924 8,288 567
16 Tadzhik Feb. 4, 1925 154,095 827
17 Chuvash June 15, 1925 18,413 894
18 Kirghiz April 30, 1927 195,171 997

The Kirghiz ASSR was renamed Kazak ASSR by virtue of a decree dated October 14, 1924 At the same time a Kara-Kirghiz autonomous region was formed out of the former republic. A decree dated May 27, 1925, changed the name to Kirghiz autonomous and finally On April 30, 1927, the transformation into the Kirghiz ASSR was effected.

By a decree dated November 30, 1922, the Gorsk ASSR was transformed into two autonomous regions on the basis of national characteristics: the Severno-Ossetiia and Ingushetiia. Part of the Gorsk ASSR was transferred to the Kabarda-Balkarsk region and to the Karachevo-Cherkess region.

Abkhazia is called a “treaty socialist soviet republic.” … Turkestan disappeared as such after the territorial redistribution of Central Asia in 1925 and the consequent formation of the Uzbek and Turkmen Socialist Soviet Republics.

Source: Walter Russell Batsell, Soviet Rule in Russia (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1929), p. 124.

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